A comparative study of the biological and histological response of eggshell nanoparticles, hesperidin, and calcium hydroxide as direct pulp capping materials: An in vivo study on rat molars

Document Type : Original Article


1 Operative Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ahram Canadian University

2 Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Beni-Suef University

3 Oral Pathology Department, Faculty of Dentistry. King Salman University, Tur branch

4 Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Sinai University, Kantara Campus


Aim: To assess the biological and histological pulp response following direct pulp capping with eggshell nanoparticles and hesperidin compared to calcium hydroxide in rats' teeth.
Materials and methods: Eighteen rats were divided into three groups according to pulp capping materials (eggshell powder nanoparticles, hesperidin, and calcium hydroxide). Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the time of sacrifice following the application of pulp capping materials (2 and 4 weeks). The pulp tissue of the maxillary first molars was exposed and directly capped by one of the three materials. Glass ionomer was then used to fill the cavities. At each interval period, animals were sacrificed, and their teeth were collected for histopathological analysis. The differences in the inflammatory response and dentin bridge formation of the exposed pulp between the three groups were statistically evaluated.
Results: The difference between all groups was statistically significant. The inflammatory cell count results revealed that eggshell powder recorded the lowest pulp inflammatory response at both intervals (2 and 4 weeks). Regarding the dentin bridge, at 1st interval, hesperidin recorded the most significant thickness, but at 4 weeks, the greatest thickness was recorded for eggshell powder. On the other hand, at 4 weeks interval, in terms of pulp inflammatory response and calcified bridge formation, no significant differences were found between eggshell powder and hesperidin.
Conclusions: Eggshell powder nanoparticles and hesperidin have better dentin bridge formation and pulp preservation than calcium hydroxide. Moreover, eggshell powder led to faster hard tissue formation and less inflammation than hesperidin


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